Background/aims: Nephrotoxicity is the major limitation to cisplatin therapy for solid tumors. We aimed at evaluating whether early increases in serum/urine levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a biomarker of tubular damage and regeneration, predict cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI).
Methods: We compared changes in serum creatinine and serum/urine NGAL levels (ELISA assay) at 1 and 4 h and 1, 2, 3, 7 and 15 days after cisplatin infusion (70-80 mg/m(2)) versus baseline in 12 consecutive cancer patients (cases) with AKI (>25% serum creatinine increase vs. baseline) and 12 consecutive controls without AKI.
Results: Baseline characteristics and posttreatment serum NGAL levels were similar in both groups. Urinary NGAL levels increased significantly more in cases than in controls at 1, 2, 3 and 15 days after cisplatin. The NGAL increase preceded AKI by 4.5 days and the NGAL increase at day 2 after cisplatin independently predicted AKI (p < 0.05). Six cases with residual kidney dysfunction at 15 days showed a trend to earlier and higher increase in urinary NGAL levels compared to cases with renal function recovery.
Conclusion: An early increase in urinary NGAL excretion may help in identifying patients at risk of cisplatin-induced AKI who might benefit from innovative treatments to prevent cisplatin nephrotoxicity.
Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.