Periodontal destruction is initiated by bacteria that stimulate host responses leading to excess production of cytokines. Anticytokine therapy for periodontal diseases especially targets proinflammatory cytokines, that is, TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6, because these are essential for the initiation of the inflammatory immune reaction and are produced for prolonged periods in periodontitis. This therapy aims to bind the cytokines with the receptors present on target cells such as the fibroblasts. The three basic treatment strategies are: (1) neutralization of cytokines, (2) blockage of cytokine receptors, and (3) activation of anti-inflammatory pathways, such as, immune-suppressive pathways.This new therapy can act as a host response modulator in the control of inflammatory diseases of gums and may provide the basis for new molecular therapeutic approaches to the treatment of periodontitis.
Keywords: IL-1; IL-6; TNF; proinflammatory cytokines; soluble receptors.