Automated labeling of the human brain: a preliminary report on the development and evaluation of a forward-transform method

Hum Brain Mapp. 1997;5(4):238-42. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0193(1997)5:4<238::AID-HBM6>3.0.CO;2-4.


A forward-transform method for retrieving brain labels from the 1988 Talairach Atlas using x-y-z coordinates is presented. A hierarchical volume-occupancy labeling scheme was created to simplify the organization of atlas labels using volume and subvolumetric components. Segmentation rules were developed to define boundaries that were not given explicitly in the atlas. The labeling scheme and segmentation rules guided the segmentation and labeling of 160 contiguous regions within the atlas. A unique three-dimensional (3-D) database label server called the Talairach Daemon ( was developed for serving labels keyed to the Talairach coordinate system. Given an x-y-z Talairach coordinate, a corresponding hierarchical listing of labels is returned by the server. The accuracy and precision of the forward-transform labeling method is now under evaluation.