Seasonal and developmental timing of flowering

Plant J. 2010 Mar;61(6):1001-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04148.x.


The coordination of the timing of flowering with seasonal and development cues is a critical life-history trait that has been shaped by evolution to maximize reproductive success. Decades of studying many plant species have revealed several of the fascinating systems that plants have evolved to control flowering time: such as the perception of day length in leaves, which leads to the production of a mobile signal, florigen, that promotes flowering at the shoot apical meristem; the vernalization process in which exposure to prolonged cold results in meristem competence to flower; and the juvenile to adult phase transition. Arabidopsis research has contributed greatly to understanding these systems at a molecular level.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development
  • Cold Temperature
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Flowers / genetics
  • Flowers / growth & development*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Photoperiod
  • Plant Growth Regulators / physiology
  • Seasons*


  • Plant Growth Regulators