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, 48 (7), 2344-9

Response of Subgingival Bacteria to Smoking Cessation

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Response of Subgingival Bacteria to Smoking Cessation

Suzanne L Delima et al. J Clin Microbiol.

Abstract

It has been demonstrated that smoking cessation alters the subgingival microbial profile; however, the response of individual bacteria within this ecosystem has not been well studied. The aim of this investigation, therefore, was to longitudinally examine the effect of smoking cessation on the prevalence and levels of selected subgingival bacteria using molecular approaches for bacterial identification and enumeration. Subgingival plaque was collected from 22 smokers at the baseline and 12 months following periodontal nonsurgical management and smoking cessation counseling. The prevalence and abundance of selected organisms were examined using nested PCR and multiplexed bead-based flow cytometry. Eleven subjects successfully quit smoking over 12 months (quitters), while 11 continued to smoke throughout (smokers). Smoking cessation led to a decrease in the prevalence of Porphyromonas endodontalis and Dialister pneumosintes at 12 months and in the levels of Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, and Treponema denticola. Smoking cessation also led to an increase in the levels of Veillonella parvula. Following nonsurgical periodontal therapy and smoking cessation, the subgingival microbiome is recolonized by a greater number of health-associated species and there are a significantly lower prevalence and abundance of putative periodontal pathogens. The results indicate a critical role for smoking cessation counseling in periodontal therapy for smokers in order to effectively alter the subgingival microbiome.

Figures

FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.
Clinical status of smokers and quitters at the baseline and 12 months. The mean probing depths (A) and mean plaque index (B) at the six sites selected for sampling are shown. There were no differences in the clinical parameters recorded at the plaque sampling sites between smokers and quitters at any of the time points (P > 0.05, ANOVA).
FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.
Percent prevalence of 13 organisms in smokers and quitters at the baseline. Nested PCR was used to examine samples for the presence of selected species. No significant differences were detected between the two groups (P > 0.05, Fisher's exact test).
FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.
Loss or acquisition of species following 12 months of recolonization in smokers and quitters. The percentage of subjects who lost (A) or acquired (B) species along with significant differences between the two groups are shown.
FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.
Abundance of nine species and phylotypes following 12 months of recolonization in smokers and quitters. The levels of each species are shown as a percentage of the total population with standard deviation bars and significance levels. Species are arranged in a gradient from those present at higher levels in smokers on the left and those predominant in quitters on the right.

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