Although most cells are thought to respond to IFNs, there is limited information regarding specific cells that respond in vivo. Viperin is an IFN-induced antiviral protein and, therefore, is an excellent marker for IFN-responsive cells. In this study, we analyzed viperin expression in vivo during acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Armstrong infection, which induces high levels of type I IFNs, and in persistently infected lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus carrier mice, which contain low levels of type I IFNs. Viperin was induced in lymphoid cells and dendritic cells (DCs) during acute infection and highly induced in neutrophils and macrophages. The expression kinetics in neutrophils, macrophages, and T and B cells paralleled IFN-alpha levels, but DCs expressed viperin with delayed kinetics. In carrier mice, viperin was expressed in neutrophils and macrophages but not in T and B cells or DCs. For acutely infected and carrier mice, viperin expression was IFN dependent, because treating type I IFNR knockout mice with IFN-gamma-neutralizing Abs inhibited viperin expression. Viperin localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplet-like vesicles in neutrophils. These findings delineate the kinetics and cells responding to IFNs in vivo and suggest that the profile of IFN-responsive cells changes in chronic infections. Furthermore, these data suggest that viperin may contribute to the antimicrobial activity of neutrophils.