Clostridium Difficile Toxinotype XI (A-B-) Exhibits Unique Arrangement of PaLoc and Its Upstream Region

Anaerobe. 2010 Aug;16(4):393-5. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2010.04.001. Epub 2010 Apr 20.


Clostridium difficile toxinotype XI strains do not produce toxins A (TcdA) or B (TcdB) but do possess a nonfunctional remnant of the pathogenicity locus (PaLoc), bearing part of the sequence for tcdA. This is the first report of a type with absent upstream terminal PaLoc sequences and major genetic rearrangements of the PaLoc region.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Toxins / genetics*
  • Clostridium difficile / genetics*
  • Enterotoxins / genetics
  • Gene Order*
  • Genetic Loci*


  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Enterotoxins
  • tcdA protein, Clostridium difficile