The network of actin filaments is one of the crucial cytoskeletal structures contributing to the morphological framework of a cell and which participates in the dynamic regulation of cellular functions. In adherent cell types, cells adhere to the substratum during interphase and spread to assume their characteristic shape supported by the actin cytoskeleton. This actin cytoskeleton is reorganized during mitosis to form rounded cells with increased cortical rigidity. The actin cytoskeleton is re-established after mitosis, allowing cells to regain their extended shape and attachment to the substratum. The modulation of such drastic changes in cell shape in coordination with cell cycle progression suggests a tight regulatory interaction between cytoskeleton signalling, cell-cell/cell-matrix adhesions and mitotic events. Here, we review the contribution of the actin cytoskeleton to cell cycle progression with an emphasis on the effectors responsible for the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and integration of their activities with the cell cycle machinery.
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