Background and objectives: Renal function and imaging findings have not been comprehensively and prospectively characterized in a broad age range of patients with molecularly confirmed autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD).
Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Ninety potential ARPKD patients were examined at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Seventy-three fulfilled clinical diagnostic criteria, had at least one PKHD1 mutation, and were prospectively evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution ultrasonography (HR-USG), and measures of glomerular and tubular function.
Results: Among 31 perinatally symptomatic patients, 25% required renal replacement therapy by age 11 years; among 42 patients who became symptomatic beyond 1 month (nonperinatal), 25% required kidney transplantation by age 32 years. Creatinine clearance (CrCl) for nonperinatal patients (103 +/- 54 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) was greater than for perinatal patients (62 +/- 33) (P = 0.002). Corticomedullary involvement on HR-USG was associated with a significantly worse mean CrCl (61 +/- 32) in comparison with medullary involvement only (131 +/- 46) (P < 0.0001). Among children with enlarged kidneys, volume correlated inversely with function, although with wide variability. Severity of PKHD1 mutations did not determine kidney size or function. In 35% of patients with medullary-only abnormalities, standard ultrasound was normal and the pathology was detectable with HR-USG.
Conclusions: In ARPKD, perinatal presentation and corticomedullary involvement are associated with faster progression of kidney disease. Mild ARPKD is best detected by HR-USG. Considerable variability occurs that is not explained by the type of PKHD1 mutation.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00068224.