Simultaneous control of blood glucose and other risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidaemia is essential for reducing the risk of complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). As relatively few patients with T2DM have their risk factors managed to within the limits recommended by the American Diabetes Association, American College of Endocrinology or National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, treatment that can simultaneously control more than one risk factor is of therapeutic benefit. Clinical studies have shown that bile acid sequestrants have glucose-lowering effects in addition to their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering effects in patients with T2DM. The bile acid sequestrant colesevelam hydrochloride is approved as an adjunct to antidiabetes therapy for improving glycaemic control in adults with T2DM. This review examines data from three phase III clinical trials that evaluated the glucose- and lipid-lowering effects of colesevelam when added to the existing antidiabetes treatment regimen of patients with T2DM.