Salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage in type II diabetics

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010 May;109(5):706-11. doi: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2009.12.042.


Objective: The aim of this study was to detect salivary glucose levels in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects, to study the relationship between salivary glucose levels and salivary candidal carriage, and to determine if salivary glucose levels could be used as a noninvasive tool to monitor glycemic control in diabetics.

Study design: A total of 150 adults, 100 with type 2 diabetes and 50 without diabetes (control subjects), aged 40-60 years, participated in the study. Diabetic status was determined by estimation of random nonfasting plasma glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Both unstimulated and stimulated saliva were collected and investigated for glucose levels and colony-forming units (CFU) of Candida. Salivary glucose levels were measured using the glucose-oxidase method.

Results: Salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in diabetics than nondiabetics. There was a significant positive correlation between salivary and plasma glucose levels. Candidal CFUs were significantly higher in diabetic subjects and showed a significant positive correlation with salivary (unstimulated and stimulated) glucose levels.

Conclusions: These results show that salivary glucose concentration is a potentially useful noninvasive tool to monitor glycemic control in diabetic patients. Increased salivary glucose is associated with increased prevalence of oral Candida in these subjects.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Candida / isolation & purification*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Colony Count, Microbial
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / microbiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / prevention & control
  • Glucose / analysis*
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Saliva / chemistry*
  • Saliva / metabolism
  • Saliva / microbiology
  • Secretory Rate / physiology


  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Glucose