Ser(Thr)-O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a ubiquitous modification of nucleocytoplasmic proteins. Extensive crosstalk exists between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation, which regulates signaling in response to nutrients/stress. The development of novel O-GlcNAc detection and enrichment methods has improved our understanding of O-GlcNAc functions. Mass spectrometry has revealed O-GlcNAc's many interactions with phosphorylation-mediated signaling. However, mechanisms regulating O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation are quite different. Phosphorylation is catalyzed by hundreds of distinct kinases. In contrast, in mammals, uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine:polypeptide beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase (OGT) and beta-D-N-acetylglucosaminidase (OGA) are encoded by single highly conserved genes. Both OGT's and OGA's specificities are determined by their transient associations with many other proteins to create a multitude of specific holoenzymes. The extensive crosstalk between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation represents a new paradigm for cellular signaling.
Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.