Rhodococcus equi is a veterinary pathogen that can cause substantial morbidity in patients that are immunocompromised and are occupationally and recreationally exposed to farming, livestock, and dry soil environments. Although the clinical spectrum of disease associated with R equi is broad, pulmonary involvement is a predominant feature in most cases. We present a case of occupationally acquired R equi pneumonia and mediastinal lymphadenitis in a patient that has had a renal transplant and is in receipt of a stable immunosuppression regimen. We review the pathogenesis and clinical characteristics of infections with Rhodococcus spp, and discuss approaches to treatment of this disease entity in populations of patients who are immunocompromised.
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