Maxillofacial fractures sustained by unmounted equestrians

Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011 Apr;49(3):213-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bjoms.2010.03.005. Epub 2010 Apr 24.


Facial injuries caused by horses are relatively common among riding enthusiasts, but little is known about the nature of maxillofacial fractures sustained by those not mounted. We collected data on patients' characteristics, fractures sites, mechanisms of injury, and treatment of these fractures from the departmental records of the oral and maxillofacial unit at Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand between 1996 and 2008. Of 49 patients with equine-related facial fractures, 35 (mean (SD) age 35.8 (16.7) years) had sustained their injuries while unmounted (71%). Most of the fractures occurred in women (66%), of whom 39% were aged between 16 and 30 years. There was an increasing trend in the incidence of these fractures over much of the 13-year period. Most injuries were caused by kicks (69%), followed by head-butts (26%), and trampling (6%). The zygoma was the most common fracture site (63%), followed by the mandible (34%), and orbital floor (31%). Surgical intervention was required in 60% of cases.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Animals
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Child
  • Female
  • Fracture Fixation, Internal
  • Horses*
  • Humans
  • Internal Fixators
  • Male
  • Maxillofacial Injuries / etiology*
  • Maxillofacial Injuries / surgery
  • Middle Aged
  • New Zealand
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Skull Fractures / etiology*
  • Skull Fractures / surgery
  • Young Adult