Adiponectin is an adipocytokine involved in the pathogenesis of various obesity-related disorders. Also, it has been shown that adiponectin has therapeutic potential for metabolic syndrome, systemic insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease and more recently carcinogenesis. Adiponectin can modulate breast cancer cell growth and proliferation. Anti-metastatic effects of adiponectin have also been elucidated. It has been shown that adiponectin inhibits important metastatic properties such as adhesion, invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Examination of the underlying molecular mechanisms has shown that adiponectin treatment increases AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and activity. Adiponectin also increases phosphorylation of downstream target of AMPK, Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACC) and decreases phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase (S6K). Importantly, adiponectin treatment increases the expression of tumor suppressor gene, LKB1 in breast cancer cells. LKB1 is required for adiponectin-mediated modulation of AMPK-S6K axis and more importantly, its biological functions including inhibition of adhesion, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Although further studies are required to analyze the effect of adiponectin on LKB1-AMPK-S6K axis, these data present a novel mechanism involving specific upregulation of tumor suppressor gene LKB1 by which adiponectin inhibits adhesion, invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. These results highlight a new role for LKB1 in adiponectin action and may have significant implication for development of novel therapeutic options. Cancer research has largely focused on the molecular basis of oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis for many years. Recent progress in cancer research has put the metastatic process at the center stage because higher metastatic potential of tumor cells is the major cause of mortality from solid tumors. Metastasis is a complex process that involves modulation of various molecular signaling networks. Tumor cells alter the microenvironment, attain greater cellular adhesion along with better ability to invade and migrate to gain access to circulation. These wandering tumor cells defy anoikis, survive in the circulation, exit into new permissive organ site and colonize distant organs. The microenvironment in which the tumor originates plays an important role in tumor initiation, progression and metastasis.