Treatment of meningitis and other infections due to ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b in children

Rev Infect Dis. Mar-Apr 1991;13(2):197-200. doi: 10.1093/clinids/13.2.197.

Abstract

Cefotaxime and other cephalosporins were retrospectively evaluated for the treatment of meningitis and non-central nervous system (CNS) infections due to ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Between January 1985 and February 1989, 45 cases of meningitis and 27 cases of non-CNS infection due to ampicillin-resistant Hib were documented at Texas Children's Hospital in Houston. Of the 45 children with meningitis, 26 (57.8%) were treated with cefotaxime, 11 (24.4%) with chloramphenicol, and three (6.7%) with cefuroxime; five children (11.1%) were initially given chloramphenicol but later received cefotaxime instead. In addition, 14 chloramphenicol-treated patients from a previous study were included in this analysis. There were no significant differences in terms of neurologic sequelae or other complications (except diarrhea) between the cefotaxime and chloramphenicol groups. The efficacy of cefotaxime was equivalent to that of chloramphenicol for the treatment of ampicillin-resistant Hib meningitis. Cefuroxime was as safe and effective as chloramphenicol or cefotaxime for the treatment of non-CNS infections due to ampicillin-resistant Hib.

MeSH terms

  • Ampicillin Resistance
  • Arthritis, Infectious / drug therapy
  • Cefotaxime / therapeutic use*
  • Cefuroxime / therapeutic use
  • Cellulitis / drug therapy
  • Chloramphenicol / therapeutic use*
  • Epiglottitis / drug therapy
  • Haemophilus Infections / drug therapy*
  • Haemophilus influenzae / drug effects*
  • Hearing Loss, Bilateral / etiology
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Meningitis, Haemophilus / complications
  • Meningitis, Haemophilus / drug therapy*
  • Pneumonia / drug therapy
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sepsis / drug therapy
  • Subdural Effusion / etiology

Substances

  • Chloramphenicol
  • Cefotaxime
  • Cefuroxime