Renal transplantation is an effective treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. Unfortunately, the number of patients waiting for transplantation greatly exceeds the number of suitable organs. Use of live kidney donors can increase the donor pool. Historically, donor nephrectomy was performed as an open technique. Its associated prolonged convalescence and long-term morbidity was likely a disincentive to donate. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, however, has been shown to have fewer long-term complications without compromising graft function. Since its inception, there has been an increase in the number of live donor renal transplantations performed.