Dynamic changes of inflammatory markers in brain after hemorrhagic stroke in humans: a postmortem study

Brain Res. 2010 Jun 25;1342:111-7. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.04.033. Epub 2010 Apr 24.


This histopathologic case-control study was designed to characterize the dynamic changes in protein expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB)/p65 subunit, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in postmortem brains of patients with and without intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Thirty-six human brains from patients with ICH and six control brains were included in this study. We found that expression levels of NF-kappaB/p65, MIP-2, and MMP-9 were each upregulated on the injured side of the hippocampus at times ranging from 2h to 5days post-ICH. Interestingly, the expression of all three markers was also upregulated on the uninjured side of the hippocampus and in the cerebellum, although to a lesser extent. These data suggest that inflammation occurs early and persists for several days after ICH in humans and could be involved in the progression of ICH-induced secondary brain damage.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Autopsy / methods*
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Brain / pathology*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / complications
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / diagnosis
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / pathology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators / analysis
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Stroke / complications
  • Stroke / diagnosis
  • Stroke / pathology*


  • Inflammation Mediators