Lipids, abundant constituents of both the vascular plaque and lipoproteins, play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis. Mass spectrometry-based analysis of lipids, called lipidomics, presents a number of opportunities not only for understanding the cellular processes in health and disease but also in enabling personalized medicine. Lipidomics in its most advanced form is able to quantify hundreds of different molecular lipid species with various structural and functional roles. Unraveling this complexity will improve our understanding of diseases such as atherosclerosis at a level of detail not attainable with classical analytical methods. Improved patient selection, biomarkers for gauging treatment efficacy and safety, and translational models will be facilitated by the lipidomic deliverables. Importantly, lipid-based biomarkers and targets should lead the way as we progress toward more specialized therapeutics.