Tsunami-affected Scandinavian tourists: disaster exposure and post-traumatic stress symptoms

Nord J Psychiatry. 2011 Feb;65(1):9-15. doi: 10.3109/08039481003786394. Epub 2010 Apr 29.


Background: Studies of short- and long-term mental effects of natural disasters have reported a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress. Less is known about disaster-exposed tourists repatriated to stable societies.

Aims: To examine the association between exposure to the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and symptoms of post-traumatic stress in three Scandinavian tourist populations.

Methods: Postal survey of Norwegian, Danish and Swedish Southeast Asia tourists registered by the police when arriving at national airports. Follow-up time was 6 (Norway), 10 (Denmark) and 14 months (Sweden) post-disaster; 6772 individuals were included and categorized according to disaster exposure: danger exposed (caught or chased by the waves), non-danger exposed (other disaster-related stressors) and non-exposed. Outcome measures were the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Check List (PCL).

Results: Danger exposed reported more post-traumatic stress than non-danger exposed, and the latter reported more symptoms than non-exposed (each P<0.001). Comparison of the Norwegian and Swedish data suggested that symptoms were attenuated at 14 months follow-up (P<0.001). Female gender and low education, but not age, predicted higher levels of symptoms.

Conclusions: Disaster-exposed tourists repatriated to unaffected home environments show long-term post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms related to the severity of exposure.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Asia, Southeastern
  • Disasters
  • Educational Status
  • Environmental Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Life Change Events
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Scandinavian and Nordic Countries
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sex Factors
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / etiology
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / psychology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors
  • Transportation of Patients
  • Travel / psychology
  • Tsunamis