Preemptive kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease. Compared with nonpreemptive transplantation, preemptive transplantation is significantly associated with improved kidney allograft survival in recipients of either cadaver or living-donor transplants. This seems to be related to better patient survival. It can be proposed to all patients, but still needs to be evaluated for repeat transplantation. The main barriers are organ-allocation policies and late referral of patients to transplantation centers.
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