Ischemic cardiovascular diseases remain among the most serious health challenges worldwide, despite many breakthroughs in cardiovascular medicine. Recently, approaches using stem or progenitor cells to regenerate these ischemic cardiovascular tissues have emerged as a novel therapeutic option. Currently, various bone marrow (BM)-derived cells including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are being investigated to regenerate or repair ischemic myocardium or limbs depending on the type of disease and the differentiation characteristics of specific stem or progenitor cell populations. The issue has been raised, however regarding the use of animal serum for generation of stem or progenitor cells ex vivo. The use of human serum is a promising alternative for clinical therapy.