Although many studies have documented the antitumor activities of mushrooms, the association between mushroom intake and breast cancer, defined by hormone receptor status, has received minimal empirical investigation. This study evaluated the association between mushroom intake and the risk of breast cancer according to hormone receptor status among Korean women. Mushroom intake and breast cancer risk were examined among 358 breast cancer patients and 360 cancer-free controls. Intake of mushrooms was assessed using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Greater mushroom intake was related to lower risk of breast cancers among premenopausal women (odds ratio [OR] = 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13-0.91 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile intake). The association was stronger for premenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)+/progesterone receptor (PR) + tumors (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.11-0.79 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile intake) than those with ER-/PR- tumors. Our results suggest that high consumption of mushrooms might be related to lower risks for breast cancers among premenopausal women; this association may be more robust among women with hormone receptor positive tumors.