Essentials of endodontic microsurgery

Dent Clin North Am. 2010 Apr;54(2):375-99. doi: 10.1016/j.cden.2009.12.002. Epub 2010 Apr 8.


While endodontic microsurgery has been making tremendous strides in the past 20 years, there are still basic concepts that are confusing or frustrating for the novice and experienced surgeon alike. These issues, such as microscope positioning and the relationship with the surgeon's ergonomics and line of sight to the surgical field, making use of natural hand movements and positions, are addressed in this article. Other topics include major flap designs and guidelines for their implementation, effective hemostasis using materials with less tissue toxicity, root end preparation techniques and guidelines, site-determined choice of root end filling material, and placement and finishing tips for Mineral Trioxide Aggregate.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anesthesia, Dental
  • Apicoectomy
  • Ergonomics
  • Gingivectomy / methods
  • Hemostatic Techniques
  • Hemostatics
  • Humans
  • Microsurgery*
  • Patient Positioning
  • Retrograde Obturation
  • Root Canal Therapy / methods*
  • Surgical Flaps


  • Hemostatics