Retinoids for treatment of retinal diseases

Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2010 Jun;31(6):284-95. doi: 10.1016/


Knowledge about retinal photoreceptor signal transduction and the visual cycle required for normal eyesight has increased exponentially over the past decade. Substantial progress in human genetics has facilitated the identification of candidate genes and complex networks underlying inherited retinal diseases. Natural mutations in animal models that mimic human diseases have been characterized and advanced genetic manipulation can now be used to generate small mammalian models of human retinal diseases. Pharmacological repair of defective visual processes in animal models not only validates their involvement in vision, but also provides great promise for the development of improved therapies for millions who are progressing towards blindness or are almost completely robbed of their eyesight.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blindness / drug therapy*
  • Blindness / genetics
  • Drug Delivery Systems / methods*
  • Eye Proteins / drug effects
  • Eye Proteins / genetics
  • Eye Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological
  • Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate / metabolism
  • Retinal Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Retinal Diseases / genetics
  • Retinal Diseases / metabolism
  • Retinaldehyde / administration & dosage*
  • Retinaldehyde / metabolism
  • Retinoids / administration & dosage*
  • Retinoids / metabolism
  • Retinoids / pharmacokinetics
  • Retinoids / pharmacology
  • Vision, Ocular / physiology
  • Visual Perception / physiology


  • Eye Proteins
  • Retinoids
  • Retinaldehyde