Burden of chronic kidney disease: an international perspective

Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2010 May;17(3):215-24. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2010.02.001.


CKD is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and a loss of disability-adjusted life years. Diseases of the genitourinary system were responsible for 928,000 deaths and 14,754,000 disability-adjusted life years in 2004. However, the absence of kidney registries in most of the low- and middle-income countries has made it difficult to ascertain the true burden of CKD in these countries. The global increase in the incidence and prevalence of CKD is being driven by the global increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, and aging. Most patients in low- and middle-income countries die because they cannot access renal replacement therapy because of the exorbitant cost. Community surveys have shown that the number of people with end-stage kidney disease is just the tip of the "CKD iceberg." The preventive strategies to stem the tide of CKD should involve educating the population on how to prevent renal disease; identifying those at risk of developing CKD; raising the awareness of the general public, policy makers, and health care workers; modifying the lifestyle of susceptible individuals; detecting early stage of CKD; arresting or hindering the progression of disease; and creating facilities for global assistance.

MeSH terms

  • Chronic Disease
  • Cost of Illness*
  • Early Diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Internationality*
  • Kidney Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Kidney Diseases / etiology
  • Kidney Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Kidney Diseases / prevention & control
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors