Risk predictors for hypnosedative-related complex sleep behaviors: a retrospective, cross-sectional pilot study

J Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Oct;71(10):1331-5. doi: 10.4088/JCP.09m05083bro. Epub 2010 Apr 20.


Objective: To explore the risk predictors for complex sleep-related behaviors (CSBs) in subjects with a DSM-IV-diagnosed depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, adjustment disorder, somatoform disorder, or sleep disorder taking hypnosedative drugs.

Method: One hundred twenty-five subjects using hypnosedatives were enrolled from the psychiatric outpatient clinics of a medical center in Taiwan from May 2006 to July 2006. All subjects completed a questionnaire that included demographic data, current and childhood sleep habits, and CSBs after taking hypnosedatives. Complex sleep-related behaviors were defined as somnambulism with object manipulation, sleep-related eating, and other amnestic sleep-related behaviors. Demographic and clinical variables were compared in those with CSBs and those without. Then multiple logistic regression analyses were performed in order to identify significant risk predictors for CSBs.

Results: Of the 125 subjects, 19 (15.2%) reported CSBs, all of whom took zolpidem. Among a total of 67 subjects taking zolpidem, those with CSBs were significantly more likely to be younger (P = .023), to be female (P = .011), to take a higher dose of zolpidem (> 10 mg/d; P < .001), and to not go to sleep immediately after taking zolpidem (P = .047). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that a higher dose of zolpidem (> 10 mg/d) was the only significant predictor of CSBs (OR = 13.1; 95% CI, 2.6-65.9; P = .002).

Conclusions: This pilot study suggests that a higher dosage of zolpidem (> 10 mg/d) is the key risk predictor for CSBs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antidepressive Agents / adverse effects
  • Azabicyclo Compounds / adverse effects
  • Benzodiazepines / adverse effects
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives / adverse effects*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pilot Projects
  • Piperazines / adverse effects
  • Pyridines / adverse effects*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / chemically induced*
  • Zolpidem


  • Antidepressive Agents
  • Azabicyclo Compounds
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives
  • Piperazines
  • Pyridines
  • zopiclone
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Zolpidem