Pulmonary TB should be suspected in patients with respiratory symptoms longer than 2-3 weeks. Immunosuppression may modify clinical and radiological presentation. Chest X-ray shows very suggestive, albeit sometimes atypical, signs of TB. Complex radiological tests (CT scan, MR) are more useful in extrapulmonary TB. At least 3 serial representative samples of the clinical location are used for diagnosis whenever possible. Bacilloscopy and liquid medium cultures are indicated in all cases. Genetic amplification techniques are coadjuvant in moderate or high TB suspicion. Administration of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide (HREZ) for 2 months and HR for 4 additional months is recommended in new cases of TB, except in cases of meningitis in which treatment should continue for up to 12 months and up to 9 months in spinal TB with neurological involvement, and in silicosis. Appropriate adjustments with antiretroviral treatment should be made in HIV patients. Combined therapy is recommended to avoid development of resistance. An antibiogram to first line drugs should be performed in all the initial isolations of new patients. Treatment control is one of the most important activities in TB management. The Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) is positive in TB infection when >or=5mm, and Interferon-Gamma Release Assays (IGRA) are recommended in combination with TT. The standard treatment schedule for infection is 6 months with isoniazid. In pulmonary TB, respiratory isolation is applied for 3 weeks or until 3 negative bacilloscopy samples are obtained.
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