Improvement of neurological symptoms and memory and emotional status in a case of seronegative Sneddon syndrome with cyclophosphamide

Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2010 Jul;112(6):544-7. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2010.04.002. Epub 2010 May 4.


Sneddon syndrome (SS) is characterized by livedo racemosa, recurrent ischemic strokes, and often progressive vascular dementia. Treatment options for SS center on either anticoagulation or immunosuppression to prevent strokes and to dissipate the skin findings, with these modalities based historically on the presence or absence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) respectively. However, few effective treatments have been reported to reverse the cognitive decline in SS. We report a case of a woman with seronegative SS (absence of APA) with cognitive decline who demonstrated objective and subjective improvements in her memory and emotional functioning after treatment with cyclophosphamide.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Attention / drug effects
  • Cerebral Angiography
  • Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use*
  • Emotions / drug effects*
  • Executive Function / drug effects
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Learning
  • Magnetic Resonance Angiography
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Memory / drug effects*
  • Nervous System Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Nervous System Diseases / etiology
  • Nervous System Diseases / psychology*
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Skin Diseases / drug therapy
  • Skin Diseases / etiology
  • Sneddon Syndrome / complications
  • Sneddon Syndrome / drug therapy*
  • Sneddon Syndrome / psychology*
  • Verbal Learning


  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Cyclophosphamide