In this phase I study, we assessed the safety and feasibility of intravenous, autologous bone marrow (BM) cell therapy, without immunosuppressive preconditioning, in six patients with clinically definite, relapsing-progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Assessment of efficacy was a secondary objective and employed clinical disability rating scales, multimodal evoked potential (MMEP) recordings, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Cells were harvested, filtered and infused intravenously in a day-case procedure that was well tolerated by patients and was not associated with any serious adverse events (AEs). Over a period of 12 months after the therapy, clinical disability scores showed either no change (Extended Disability Status Score, EDSS) or improvement (MS impact scale-29, MSIS-29), and MMEPs showed neurophysiological improvement. MRI scans did not show any significant changes over a post-therapy period of 3 months. The lack of serious adverse effects and the suggestion of a beneficial effect in this small sample of patients with progressive disease justify conducting a larger phase II/III study to make a fuller assessment of the efficacy of mobilization of autologous BM in patients with MS.