Within the last four years, we have observed five patients with epidemiological, clinical, and serological features that were consistent with Q fever meningoencephalitis. Attempts to isolate Coxiella burnetii from the cerebrospinal fluid of two patients were unsuccessful. Neurological features ranged from coma, general seizures, confusion, to palsy and meningitis. All patients were febrile. These patients were neuroradiologicaly investigated. Since 1984, four other cases have been reported in the literature. Antibiotics with good penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid, such as new quinolones, may be useful for treatment of confirmed cases. Q fever should be considered as a possible etiology of meningitis in endemic areas, and diagnosis should be confirmed by serology.