Cord blood stem cells (CB-SCs) have shown impressive immunological and regenerative capabilities. In this review, we intend to review the state-of-the-art knowledge on CB-SCs characteristics and function as well as immunological and regenerative properties. We report an itemized classification of CB-SCs populations, which is important to better understand which tissues can be replaced using CB-SCs and how the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from CB-SCs is changing the field. Furthermore, we will discuss new findings on the immunosuppressive capability of CB-SCs in autoimmune disease (e.g., type 1 diabetes). Our review will demonstrate how CB-SCs could become a powerful tool not only for regenerative medicine but for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases as well.
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