Background: Collagen XXIII is a transmembrane collagen previously shown to be upregulated in metastatic prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the protein expression of collagen XXIII in tumor tissues from a variety of cancers and to assess the utility of collagen XXIII as a biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Methods: A multicancer tissue microarray was used for the immunohistochemical examination of collagen XXIII protein expression in a variety of cancers. Subsequently, collagen XXIII expression was analyzed in three separate cohorts using tissue microarrays with representative tumor and control lung tissues from NSCLC patients. In addition, NSCLC patient urine samples were analyzed for the presence of collagen XXIII through Western blot.
Results: Collagen XXIII was present in tissue samples from a variety of cancers. Within lung cancer tissues, collagen XXIII staining was enriched in NSCLC subtypes. Collagen XXIII was present in 294 of 333 (88%) lung adenocarcinomas and 97 of 133 (73%) squamous cell carcinomas. In urine, collagen XXIII was present in 23 of 29 (79%) NSCLC patient samples but only in 15 of 54 (28%) control samples. High collagen XXIII staining intensity correlated with shorter recurrence-free survival in NSCLC patients.
Conclusions: We show the capability of collagen XXIII as a tissue and urinary biomarker for NSCLC, in which positivity in tissue or urine significantly correlates with the presence of NSCLC and high staining intensity is a significant recurrence predictor.
Impact: Inclusion of collagen XXIII in a tissue- or urine-based cancer biomarker panel could inform NSCLC patient treatment decisions.
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