Assessment of the effects of dentifrice on periodontal disease biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid

J Periodontol. 2010 Sep;81(9):1273-9. doi: 10.1902/jop.2010.100070.


Background: Periodontal disease has been studied primarily from clinical outcomes in lengthy human studies. Comprehensive biochemical profiling (metabolomics) has become a powerful tool for disease characterization and biomarker discovery. In a previous study, we performed a metabolomic analysis of gingival crevicular fluid collected from healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis sites. Many metabolites associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, tissue degradation, and bacterial metabolism were found to be significantly induced by the diseases.

Methods: A panel of 10 markers was selected from the previous metabolomic study based on their statistical significance. Thirty-nine chronic periodontitis subjects were randomly assigned to a toothpaste regimen: control dentifrice (n = 21) or triclosan-containing dentifrice ([CT] n = 18). Subjects were instructed to use their assigned dentifrice twice daily for 6 weeks. Gingival crevicular fluid samples from six healthy, six gingivitis, and three periodontitis sites were collected from each subject at baseline, 1 week, and 6 weeks. The relative levels of the markers in the samples were determined by mass spectrometry. One-sided matched-paired t tests were performed to compare data from healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis sites.

Results: Statistical analysis indicates that CT significantly decreased the levels of inosine, lysine, putrescine, and xanthine at the gingivitis sites as early as week 1. In contrast, control dentifrice had little effect.

Conclusions: This result provides biochemical confirmation for the therapeutic effects of CT on gingivitis. Biomarkers were significantly altered by CT before clinical changes were observed, suggesting that the markers have predicative value for disease state assessment.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Biomarkers / metabolism*
  • Chronic Periodontitis / drug therapy*
  • Chronic Periodontitis / metabolism*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Gingival Crevicular Fluid / chemistry*
  • Gingivitis / drug therapy
  • Gingivitis / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Inosine / metabolism
  • Lysine / metabolism
  • Male
  • Metabolome / drug effects*
  • Middle Aged
  • Putrescine / metabolism
  • Toothpastes / chemistry
  • Toothpastes / pharmacology*
  • Toothpastes / therapeutic use
  • Triclosan / pharmacology*
  • Triclosan / therapeutic use
  • Xanthine / metabolism
  • Young Adult


  • Biomarkers
  • Toothpastes
  • Xanthine
  • Triclosan
  • Inosine
  • Lysine
  • Putrescine