A simple and fast method to analyze the orientation of c-type cytochromes in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria

J Microbiol Methods. 2010 Aug;82(2):184-6. doi: 10.1016/j.mimet.2010.04.011. Epub 2010 May 6.


Outer membrane cytochromes catalyze the final reduction step of respiratory chains to electron acceptors that cannot diffuse through the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. We developed an in vivo method to detect the orientation of outer membrane cytochromes via analysis of electron transfer reactions between these enzymes and riboflavin.

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins / analysis*
  • Cytochromes c / analysis*
  • Electron Transport
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / enzymology*
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Riboflavin / metabolism


  • Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins
  • Cytochromes c
  • Riboflavin