Diffuse white matter injury is common in preterm infants and is a candidate substrate for later cognitive impairment. This injury pattern is associated with morphological changes in deep grey nuclei, the localization of which is uncertain. We test the hypotheses that diffuse white matter injury is associated with discrete focal tissue loss, and that this image phenotype is associated with impairment at 2years. We acquired magnetic resonance images from 80 preterm infants at term equivalent (mean gestational age 29(+6)weeks) and 20 control infants (mean GA 39(+2)weeks). Diffuse white matter injury was defined by abnormal apparent diffusion coefficient values in one or more white matter region (frontal, central or posterior white matter at the level of the centrum semiovale), and morphological difference between groups was calculated from 3D images using deformation based morphometry. Neurodevelopmental assessments were obtained from preterm infants at a mean chronological age of 27.5months, and from controls at a mean age of 31.1months. We identified a common image phenotype in 66 of 80 preterm infants at term equivalent comprising: diffuse white matter injury; and tissue volume reduction in the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus, the globus pallidus, periventricular white matter, the corona radiata and within the central region of the centrum semiovale (t=4.42 p<0.001 false discovery rate corrected). The abnormal image phenotype is associated with reduced median developmental quotient (DQ) at 2years (DQ=92) compared with control infants (DQ=112), p<0.001. These findings indicate that specific neural systems are susceptible to maldevelopment after preterm birth, and suggest that neonatal image phenotype may serve as a useful biomarker for studying mechanisms of injury and the effect of putative therapeutic interventions.
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