Neural substrate and allatostatin-like innervation of the gut of Locusta migratoria

J Insect Physiol. 2010 Aug;56(8):893-901. doi: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2010.05.003. Epub 2010 May 14.


Allatostatin-like immunoreactivity (ALI) is widely distributed in processes and varicosities on the fore-, mid-, and hindgut of the locust, and within midgut open-type endocrine-like cells. ALI is also observed in cells and processes in all ganglia of the central nervous system (CNS) and the stomatogastric nervous system (SNS). Ventral unpaired median neurons (VUMs) contained ALI within abdominal ganglia IV-VII. Neurobiotin retrograde fills of the branches of the 11th sternal nerve that innervate the hindgut revealed 2-4 VUMs in abdominal ganglia IV-VIIth, which also contain ALI. The VIIIth abdominal ganglion contained three ventral medial groups of neurons that filled with neurobiotin and contained ALI. The co-localization of ALI in the identified neurons suggests that these cells are the source of ALI on the hindgut. A retrograde fill of the nerves of the ingluvial ganglia that innervate the foregut revealed numerous neurons within the frontal ganglion and an extensive neuropile in the hypocerebral ganglion, but there seems to be no apparent co-localization of neurobiotin and ALI in these neurons, indicating the source of ALI on the foregut comes via the brain, through the SNS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biotin / analogs & derivatives
  • Biotin / metabolism
  • Digestion / physiology*
  • Female
  • Ganglia, Invertebrate / physiology*
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / innervation*
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Locusta migratoria / physiology*
  • Male
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence
  • Neurons / metabolism*
  • Neuropeptides / immunology
  • Neuropeptides / metabolism*


  • Neuropeptides
  • neurobiotin
  • allatostatin
  • Biotin