Intravitreal therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration and inter-individual variations in vitreous pharmacokinetics

Prog Retin Eye Res. 2010 Nov;29(6):466-75. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2010.04.003. Epub 2010 May 7.


This article aims to provide an interpretation and perspective on current concepts and recent literature regarding the evidence for individualizing intravitreal therapy (IVT), particularly considering iatrogenic and patient factors in the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). As ocular parameters that govern IVT pharmacokinetics do vary between individuals with AMD, developing a personalized strategy could improve safety and efficacy. This has to be derived from clinical measurements and data from laboratory animals; however, it is recognized that the animal models used in the development of intraocular formulations differ in their vitreous geometry from humans. These factors may be of relevance to the design of ophthalmic formulations and optimizing treatment outcomes in AMD. Further studies are needed to drive improvements in clinical practice which are aimed at maximizing the efficacy profile in IVT for AMD by a more rigorous evaluation of patient and surgeon-related variables.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics*
  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Animals
  • Choroidal Neovascularization / complications
  • Choroidal Neovascularization / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Individuality*
  • Intravitreal Injections / instrumentation
  • Intravitreal Injections / methods*
  • Macular Degeneration / physiopathology*
  • Macular Degeneration / therapy*
  • Models, Biological
  • Vitrectomy / methods
  • Vitreous Body / anatomy & histology
  • Vitreous Body / metabolism
  • Vitreous Body / pathology


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors