Energy Expenditure in the Race Across America (RAAM)

Int J Sports Med. 2010 Jul;31(7):463-7. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1251992. Epub 2010 May 7.


Energy Expenditure was measured with doubly labelled water technique during heavy sustained exercise with an official finishing team in the Race Across America. Energy Intake was also calculated to produce an energy balance for the race. A team of 4 cyclists (Mean +/-SD age: 37+4 yr; body height: 182+8 cm; body mass: 80.8+6.6 kg) completed the race in a relay fashion. The team completed the race in 6 days 10 h and 51 min. Total mean energy expenditure was found to be 43,401 kcals (181,711 kJ) with a mean daily energy expenditure of 6,420 kcals (26,879 kJ). Total mean energy intake from all food and drink consumed was calculated at 29,506 kcals (123,536 kJ) with a mean daily energy intake of 4 918 kcals (20,591 kJ). This resulted in a total mean energy deficit of 13,878 kcals (58,104 kJ) with a mean daily energy deficit of 1,503 kcals (6,293 kJ). The high energy expenditure highlights the need for correct and practical dietary strategies and challenges nutritionists to devise high energy diets that not only contain the correct macronutrient balance, but are also palatable to the cyclists, thus encouraging a high energy intake.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Athletic Performance
  • Bicycling / physiology*
  • Deuterium
  • Energy Intake*
  • Energy Metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Male


  • Deuterium