Effectiveness of nitrous oxide in a rural EMS system

J Emerg Med. Jan-Apr 1991;9(1-2):45-53. doi: 10.1016/0736-4679(91)90531-j.


Prehospital systems need a safe, effective analgesic agent for the treatment of patients suffering from pain. Recent studies have documented the efficacy of nitrous oxide in urban and rural settings. This study reviews the findings on 200 patients (157 trauma, 23 medical, 18 musculoskeletal problems) who received nitrous oxide during a 28-month period in a rural EMS system. Eighty-five percent of the patients reported pain relief. Only minor side effects were noted. Patient satisfaction was high, and there was no abuse noted among personnel.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Child
  • Clinical Protocols / standards*
  • Consumer Behavior
  • Emergency Medical Services*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nitrous Oxide / administration & dosage
  • Nitrous Oxide / therapeutic use*
  • Pain / diagnosis
  • Pain / drug therapy*
  • Pain / psychology
  • Pain Measurement
  • Prospective Studies
  • Rural Population*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Nitrous Oxide