Background: A better understanding of potentially modifiable predictors of in-hospital mortality and re-admission to the hospital following discharge may help to improve management of community-acquired pneumonia in older adults. We aimed to assess the associations of potentially modifiable factors with mortality and re-hospitalization in older adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia.
Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted from July 2003 to April 2005 in two Canadian cities. Patients aged 65 years or older hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia were followed up for up to 30 days from initial hospitalization for mortality and these patients who were discharged alive within 30 days of initial hospitalization were followed up to 90 days of initial hospitalization for re-hospitalization. Separate logistic regression analyses were performed identify the predictors of mortality and re-hospitalization.
Results: Of 717 enrolled patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia, 49 (6.8%) died within 30 days of hospital admission. Among these patients, 526 were discharged alive within 30 days of hospitalization of whom 58 (11.2%) were re-hospitalized within 90 days of initial hospitalization. History of hip fracture (odds ratio (OR) = 4.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (1.46, 10.96), P = .007), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR = 2.31, 95% CI = (1.18, 4.50), P = .014), cerebrovascular disease (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = (1.03, 4.31), P = .040) were associated with mortality. Male sex (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = (1.13, 4.85), P = .022) was associated with re-hospitalization while vitamin E supplementation was protective (OR = 0.37 (0.16, 0.90), P = .028). Lower socioeconomic status, prior influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations, appropriate antibiotic prescription upon admission, and lower nutrition risk were not significantly associated with mortality or re-hospitalization.
Conclusion: Chronic comorbidities appear to be the most important predictors of death and re-hospitalization in older adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia while vitamin E supplementation was protective.