Vinegar intake enhances flow-mediated vasodilatation via upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74(5):1055-61. doi: 10.1271/bbb.90953. Epub 2010 May 7.


This study examined the effect of acetate on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by immunoblotting assay and the ability of acetic acid to upregulate flow-mediated vasodilatation in humans. In HUVECs, acetate induced a biphasic increase in the phosphorylated form of eNOS. The amount of phosphorylated eNOS was significantly increased by exposure to 200 mumol/l acetate for 20 min (early phase) and for 4 h (late phase). The inhibitors of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) blocked acetate-induced eNOS phosphorylation in the early and the late phase respectively. Furthermore, in postmenopausal women, maximum forearm blood flow (FBF) in response to shear stress increased in the vinegar (acetic acid) administered group compared to the placebo group. These results suggest that acetic acid-induced eNOS phosphorylation contributes to upregulation of flow-mediated vasodilatation in humans.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • AMP-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Acetic Acid / metabolism*
  • Acetic Acid / pharmacology*
  • Biological Transport
  • Cell Line
  • Endothelial Cells / drug effects
  • Endothelial Cells / metabolism
  • Enzyme Activation / drug effects
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III / metabolism*
  • Phosphorylation / drug effects
  • Plethysmography
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Regional Blood Flow*
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Up-Regulation / drug effects*
  • Vasodilation / drug effects*


  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
  • AMP-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Acetic Acid