Structural insight into peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma binding of two ureidofibrate-like enantiomers by molecular dynamics, cofactor interaction analysis, and site-directed mutagenesis

J Med Chem. 2010 Jun 10;53(11):4354-66. doi: 10.1021/jm9013899.


Molecular dynamics simulations were performed on two ureidofibrate-like enantiomers to gain insight into their different potency and efficacy against PPARgamma. The partial agonism of the S enantiomer seems to be due to its capability to stabilize different regions of the receptor allowing the interaction with both coactivators and corepressors as shown by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays. The recruitment of the corepressor N-CoR1 by the S enantiomer on two different responsive elements of PPARgamma regulated promoters was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Cell-based transcription assays show that PPARgamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and cAMP response element binding protein-binding protein (CBP) enhance the basal and ligand-stimulated receptor activity acting as coactivators of PPARgamma, whereas the receptor interacting protein 140 (RIP140) and the nuclear corepressor 1 (N-CoR1) repress the transcriptional activity of PPARgamma. We also tested the importance of the residue Q286 on the transcriptional activity of the receptor by site-directed mutagenesis and confirmed its key role in the stabilization of helix 12. Molecular modeling studies were performed to provide a molecular explanation for the different behavior of the mutants.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Benzoxazoles / chemistry*
  • Benzoxazoles / metabolism*
  • Benzoxazoles / pharmacology
  • Butyrates / chemistry*
  • Butyrates / metabolism*
  • Butyrates / pharmacology
  • Co-Repressor Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Molecular Dynamics Simulation*
  • Mutagenesis, Site-Directed*
  • PPAR gamma / chemistry*
  • PPAR gamma / genetics
  • PPAR gamma / metabolism*
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Conformation
  • Rosiglitazone
  • Stereoisomerism
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Thiazolidinediones / chemistry
  • Thiazolidinediones / metabolism
  • Thiazolidinediones / pharmacology


  • Benzoxazoles
  • Butyrates
  • Co-Repressor Proteins
  • PPAR gamma
  • Thiazolidinediones
  • Rosiglitazone