Disorders of lipid metabolism could play an important role in mediating the progression of chronic renal disease toward uremia. The hypothesis of the nephrotoxicity of lipids has been considered in a large population of patients on long-term dietary protein restriction. In our experience, there is no evidence that lipid disorders may accelerate the progression of renal disease. Hypercholesterolemia and/or hypertriglyceridemia are probably only some of the many factors affecting the prognosis of renal disease. Dietary protein restriction seems to be effective in maintaining normal or only slightly elevated serum lipids in patients with early renal failure, even after years of dietary treatment, despite the natural progression of renal functional deterioration. Moreover, this dietary regimen has a favorable effect on lipid composition of erythrocyte membrane when compared with those of patients on a free diet.