A retrospective review of our population-based medical records linkage system for residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, revealed 53 patients (34 women and 19 men; mean age, 51 years) with newly diagnosed benign positional vertigo in 1984. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence was 64 per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval, 46 to 81 per 100,000). The incidence of benign positional vertigo increased by 38% with each decade of life (95% confidence interval, 23 to 54%). One patient had an initial stroke during follow-up; thus, the relative risk for new stroke associated with benign positional vertigo was 1.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.04 to 8.98) in comparison with the expected occurrence based on incidence rates for an age- and sex-adjusted control population. The observed survival among the 53 Olmsted County residents with benign positional vertigo diagnosed in 1984 was not significantly different from that of an age- and sex-matched general population. Patients with benign positional vertigo seem to have a good prognosis.