Release of VEGF and FGF in the extracellular space following severe subarachnoidal haemorrhage or traumatic head injury in humans

Br J Neurosurg. 2010 Jun;24(3):261-7. doi: 10.3109/02688690903521605.


Microdialysate fluid from 145 severely injured NSICU-patients, 88 with subarachnoidal haemorrage (SAH), and 57 with traumatic brain injury (TBI), was collected by microdialysis during the first 7 days following impact, and levels of the neurotrophins fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were analysed. The study illustrates both similarities and differences in the reaction patterns of the 2 inflammatory proteins. The highest concentrations of both FGF2 and VEGF were measured on Day 2 (mean (+/- SE) values being 47.1 +/- 15.33 and 116.9 +/- 41.85 pg/ml, respectively, in the pooled patient material). The VEGF concentration was significantly higher in TBI-patients, while the FGF2 showed a tendency to be higher in SAH-patients. This is the first report presenting in some detail the human cerebral response of FGF2 and VEGF following SAH and TBI. Apart from increasing the understanding of the post-impact inflammatory response of the human brain, the study identifies potential threshold values for these chemokines that may serve as monitoring indicators in the NSICU.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Brain Injuries / metabolism*
  • Brain Injuries / physiopathology
  • Brain Injuries / therapy
  • Extracellular Space / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Microdialysis / methods*
  • Middle Aged
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / metabolism*
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / physiopathology
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / therapy
  • Up-Regulation
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism*


  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 2