Surgical and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures among persons with body dysmorphic disorder

Ann Plast Surg. 2010 Jul;65(1):11-6. doi: 10.1097/SAP.0b013e3181bba08f.


Persons with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) frequently seek surgical and minimally invasive (MI) treatments to improve their appearance, but few studies have evaluated patient characteristics and outcomes. Surgical/MI treatment histories of 200 persons with BDD were cross-sectionally/retrospectively evaluated. Clinical and demographic characteristics of persons who received such treatments (n = 42) were compared to those who had not (n = 158). Outcomes and reasons for nonreceipt of requested procedures were examined. Receivers of surgical/MI treatments reported less severe current BDD symptoms and delusionality than persons who did not receive such treatments. Surgical/MI treatments were more likely than other cosmetic procedures to decrease preoccupation with the treated body part; however, overall BDD severity improved with only 2.3% of treatments. Cost and physician refusal were the most common reasons requested treatment was not received. However, physicians were more likely to provide requested surgical/MI treatment than other types of requested cosmetic treatment, despite the poor longer-term outcome.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adult
  • Body Dysmorphic Disorders / diagnosis
  • Body Dysmorphic Disorders / psychology*
  • Body Image*
  • Collagen / administration & dosage
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Delusions / psychology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Injections, Subcutaneous
  • Male
  • Mammaplasty / psychology
  • Middle Aged
  • Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / psychology*
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care / psychology
  • Patient Satisfaction
  • Personality Inventory / statistics & numerical data
  • Plastic Surgery Procedures / psychology*
  • Postoperative Complications / diagnosis
  • Postoperative Complications / psychology
  • Psychometrics
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Rhinoplasty / psychology
  • Young Adult


  • Collagen