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A Phylogenetic Study of Boletus Section Boletus in Europe

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A Phylogenetic Study of Boletus Section Boletus in Europe

D C M Beugelsdijk et al. Persoonia.

Abstract

A phylogenetic study of the species in Boletus sect. Boletus was undertaken using the molecular markers ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and GAPDH. Four well-supported lineages, one comprising Boletus edulis s.l., the others referring to B. aereus, B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus have been distinguished. The ML and MP trees of ITS showed remarkably low resolution within the B. edulis clade, and confirmed earlier published results, despite the use of samples from a wider geographical area and different hosts. The results of GAPDH demonstrate clearly that this low resolution must be ascribed to a low genetic variability with the B. edulis clade, and make clear that morphological and ecological characters have been overestimated within this species complex. Boletus edulis is therefore defined as a variable species with a wide morphological, ecological and geographic range, and includes several specific and subspecific taxa described in the literature (e.g. B. betulicola, B. persoonii, B. quercicola and B. venturii). Three other European species (B. aereus, B. pinophilus and B. reticulatus) are well delimited species based on morphology and our genetic data.

Keywords: Boletus; Boletus edulis; Europe; phylogenetic study.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Maximum likelihood tree from the combined ITS and GAPDH data. Bolletus fechtneri is selected as the outgroup. Above the branches bootstrap support values are displayed based on maximum parsimony (percentage), distance (percentage) and posterior probability (frequency) respectively. Behind the name and number of the samples the collection location and host genus are shown. NL = The Netherlands, FIN = Finland, S = Sweden, B = Belgium, A = Austria. ■ = Picea, ♦ = Pinus, * = Quercus, ○ = Betula, ▵ = Fagus, ▿ = Tilia, + = Castanea.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
A strict consesus MP topology of over >10 000 trees. B. fechtneri and B. luridus form the outgroup. Numerals associated with branches show BP support (percentage) followed by posterior probability (frequency). Leonardi et al. (2005) sequences preceded by their GenBank Accession numbers and country of origin. Samples from this study followed by sample number (Table 1) and country of origin. A = Austria, B = Belgium, F = France, FIN = Finland, NL = The Netherlands, I = Italy, S = Sweden.

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