Sinus reactions to immediately loaded zygoma implants: a clinical and radiological study

Eur J Oral Implantol. Spring 2008;1(1):53-60.


Aim: There are no published studies regarding sinus reactions to immediately loaded zygomatic implants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maxillary sinus in a cohort of patients by means of clinical criteria and computerised tomography performed before surgery and after zygomatic implant placement (immediate function protocol).

Materials and methods: A total of 36 patients with 71 immediately loaded zygomatic implants were evaluated to find clinical criteria of maxillary sinus disturbance 13 to 42 months (average 21.9 months) after zygoma implant placement. A total of 44 implants had a machined surface and 27 had a porous titanium oxide surface. Twenty-six patients with 52 immediately loaded zygomatic implants were evaluated by means of a CT scan of the paranasal sinuses, 3 to 20 months (average 10.5 months) after zygomatic implant placement. All patients had no sinus symptoms before surgery and had a preoperative CT scan.

Results: No clinical signs or symptoms of sinusitis were found. Radiological opacity of the antrum was found in two sinuses (out of 52), and minimal thickening of the Schneiderian membrane was found in 12 patients (out of 26). In eight of them, this was present in the preoperative CT scan.

Conclusions: Sinuses penetrated by zygomatic implants seem to maintain a normal physiology. However, in approximately 15 to 20% of patients, early radiological findings without clinical symptoms were observed.

MeSH terms

  • Cohort Studies
  • Dental Abutments
  • Dental Implantation, Endosseous / methods*
  • Dental Implants*
  • Dental Prosthesis Design
  • Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported
  • Endoscopy
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Jaw, Edentulous / rehabilitation
  • Jaw, Edentulous / surgery
  • Maxilla / surgery
  • Maxillary Sinus / diagnostic imaging*
  • Maxillary Sinus / physiopathology
  • Maxillary Sinusitis / diagnostic imaging
  • Maxillary Sinusitis / physiopathology
  • Mucous Membrane / diagnostic imaging
  • Paranasal Sinus Diseases / diagnostic imaging
  • Paranasal Sinus Diseases / physiopathology
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Zygoma / surgery*


  • Dental Implants