In contrast to the consumption of long-chain triacylglycerols (LCT), consumption of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT) reduces the body fat and blood triacylglycerols (TAG) level in hypertriacylglycerolemic Chinese individuals. These responses may be affected by BMI because of obesity-induced insulin resistance. We aimed to compare the effects of consuming MLCT or LCT on reducing body fat and blood TAG level in hypertriacylglycerolemic Chinese subjects with different ranges of BMI. Employing a double-blind, randomized and controlled protocol, 101 hypertriacylglycerolemic subjects (including 67 men and 34 women) were randomly allocated to ingest 25-30 g/day MLCT or LCT oil as the only cooking oil for 8 consecutive weeks. Anthropometric measurements of body weight, BMI, body fat, WC, HC, blood biochemical variables, and subcutaneous fat area and visceral fat area in the abdomen were measured at week 0 and 8. As compared to subjects with BMI 24-28 kg/m(2) in the LCT group, corresponding subjects in the MLCT group showed significantly greater decrease in body weight, BMI, body fat, WC, ratio of WC to HC, total fat area and subcutaneous fat area in the abdomen, as well as blood TAG and LDL-C levels at week 8. Based upon our results, consumption of MLCT oil may reduce body weight, body fat, and blood TAG and LDL-C levels in overweight hypertriacylglycerolemic Chinese subjects but may not induce these changes in normal or obese hypertriacylglycerolemic subjects.